Companions going out for Da'wah with their wives
Fatwa No: 330502

Question

Respected Shaikh, assalamu alaykum. Is there any evidence/proof in hadiths that can confirm that any one of the Companions had ever gone out with his wife for Da'wah (proselytization) or Islah (Preaching of Islam)? Best regards.

Answer

All perfect praise be to Allaah, The Lord of the worlds. I testify that there is none worthy of worship except Allaah and that Muhammad  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) is His slave and Messenger.

It is confirmed in the religious texts that women can travel with their husbands to do righteous acts such as Hijrah (migration), jihaad and Hajj, and they used to go out in jihad to serve the mujaahideen. They are even permitted to fight in battle when that is needed.

Anas ibn Maalik  may  Allaah  be  pleased  with  him said, “The Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) used to go out on military expeditions with Umm Sulaym and some women from the Ansaar, so they would provide water (to the Mujaahids) and treat the wounded.” [Muslim]

Also, Umm ‘Atiyyah Al-Ansaariyyah  may  Allaah  be  pleased  with  her said, “I went out with the Messenger of Allaah  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) in seven battles. I would look after their belongings, cook food for them, treat the wounded, and take care of the sick.” [Muslim]

Besides, Ar-Rubayyi’ bint Mu'awwith  may  Allaah  be  pleased  with  her said, “We used to go out in battles with the Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ); we would provide water to the people and serve them, and we took back the dead and the wounded to al-Madeenah.” [Al-Bukhari]

Anas ibn Maalik  may  Allaah  be  pleased  with  him reported from his maternal aunt Umm Haraam bint Milhaan:

Once upon a time, the Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) was sleeping not far from where she was, then he woke up smiling. She said, ‘What made you smile?’ He  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) replied, ‘Some people from my nation were shown to me sailing on this sea like kings on thrones.’ She said, ‘Supplicate Allaah to make me amongst them.’ So he supplicated for her to this effect. Then he put his head down and slept again. He woke up again smiling, so she asked him again and he gave the same answer and she said, ‘Supplicate Allaah to make me amongst them.’ He replied, ‘You are amongst the first group (he saw in the dream).’ She later traveled with her husband by sea during the reign of Mu'aawiyah ibn Abi Sufyaan  may  Allaah  be  pleased  with  him and when she disembarked, she fell off her horse and died.” [Al-Bukhari]

In another narration by Anas  may  Allaah  be  pleased  with  him he said that Umm Sulaym had a dagger with her on the day of the Battle of Hunayn. Abu Talhah saw her and said, “O Messenger of Allaah, Umm Sulaym has a dagger.” Thereupon, the Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) asked her, “What is this dagger?” She said, “I will make use of it, if any polytheist comes near me, I will tear out his belly with it.” So the Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) started to laugh." [Muslim]

Also, Ibn Abbaas  may  Allaah  be  pleased  with  them narrated that he heard the Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) say, “No man should stay in seclusion with a woman, and no woman should travel except with her Mahram.” A man stood up and said, “O Messenger of Allaah, I enlisted to take part in the Battle of such-and-such, and my wife went out for Hajj.” So the Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) said, “Go and perform Hajj with your wife.” [Al-Bukhari and Muslim]

There are many other authentic ahaadeeth about this, and the era of the Companions was full of such incidents.

Shaykh Al-Albaani  may  Allaah  have  mercy  upon  him stated in Ar-Rad Al-Mufhim that Asmaa’ bint Yazeed Al-Ansaariyyah witnessed the battle of Yarmouk with the people, and she killed seven of the Romans with the pole of a tent that was shading her. This hadeeth was reported by Sa’eed ibn Mansoor in As-Sunan and by At-Tabaraani in Al-Mu’jam Al-Kabeer with a good chain of narrators.

Khalid ibn Sayhaan said, “I took part in (the battle of) Tustar with Abu Moosa, and there were four women with us who used to treat the wounded, and he allocated shares (of the war spoils) for them.” This was reported by Ibn Abu Shaybah and by Al-Bukhari in At-Taareekh with a chain of narrators that is likely to be classified as good.

‘Abdullaah ibn Qurt al-Azadi said, “I took part in the battle against the Romans with Khaalid ibn Al-Waleed, and I saw the wives of Khaalid ibn Al-Waleed along with the wives of his companions carrying water for the Muhaajireen, and they were chanting Islamic songs.” It was reported by Sa’eed with a sound chain of narrators.

Also, Sharh As-Sunnah authored by Al-Baghawi, reads:

Chapter of setting out in battles along with women

Then he mentioned some of the previous ahaadeeth, and after that he said, “The hadeeth is evidence that it is permissible to set out with women in battles as a type of help and service, but if it is feared that the enemy is of a large number and is strong, or if it is feared that men will be tempted by them due to their beauty, or young age, then the Imaam should not set out with them in battles.

However, we have not come across a special story about women going out with their husbands just for preaching among the people, but all that is permissible in Islam, it is permissible for a woman to travel for it while being accompanied by her husband provided that she abides by the teachings of Islam in this regards.

The fatwa of the Standing Committee received a question about the verse {And abide in your houses} [Quran 33:33] and about women going out for a need, and it provided the following answer:

The verse does not mean to absolutely prevent women from going out; rather, they may go out for a need, such as them going out to mosques to pray, to listen to sermons, and to attend the Islamic celebration on the day of 'Eed Al-Fitr and 'Eed Al-Adhha in the praying area, and to fulfill their needs, such as them going out for treatment and keeping ties with kinship, provided that they wear their hijab and do not reveal their beauty or put on perfume and not walk in an attractive manner or speak in an attractive manner. The wives of the Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) and all the women of the believers used to go out after the revelation of this verse to the mosque for prayers, to Hajj and ‘Umrah, to fulfill their needs, and for visiting each other and keeping ties with kinship, and the wife would go out to travel with her husband if drawing lots was in her favor if her husband had other wives, and the Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) did not deny this from them, and things continued to be like this without anyone to deny it as far as we know.

Allaah knows best.

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